van Strien et al., (1986): 653 women and 517 men
• Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.80 to 0.95 across scales and groups
• Five factor, Three scale model: Restrained Eating, Emotional Eating (three sections), and External Eating
Wardel, 1987: (Study 2): 107 women in weightwatchers, 61 bulimic patients and 33 anorexic patients and outpatients.
• Three factor model
• Distinguished between the three groups
Halvarsson & Sjoden (1998): 117 9-10 year old Swedish girls
• Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.83 for total score; 0.77-0.86 for subscales
• Validity: Correlated with the ChEAT (Children’s Eating Attitude Test), r = 0.45 for the total DEBQ; r = 0.75 for DEBQ ‘Restrained Eating Scale’ and the ChEAT ‘Dieting’ scale
• Three factor model
van Strien & Oosterveld (2007): Children’s DEBQ: 769 children ages 7 to 12 years. 20 questions written using simplified sentence structure and a response scale of no, sometimes and yes.
• Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.80 Restrained eating, 0.81 Emotional eating, and 0.74 External eating
• Validity: Correlations between DEBQ-C scores, various eating behaviour (snacks, breakfast) and activities (time spent with sports, television, or computer) as well as body dissatisfaction, parental pressure and parental restrictions
• Three factor model (Emotional, Restrained eating and External Eating)
Allison, Kalinsky, & Gorman (1992): DEBQ–Restraint scale: 989 obese and nonobese undergraduate students in New York area
• Reliability: Cronbach’s alpha = 0.95; Test-retest of 34 participants after 2 weeks = 0.92 (DEBQ-R)
• One factor (Restraint)
Utility for Prevalence Surveys:
• Widely used
Copyright, Cost and Source Issues:
• Public domain (no cost) – available in the source reference
van Strien, T., Frijters, J. E. R., Bergers, G. P. A., & Defares, P. B. (1986). The Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ) for assessment of restrained, emotional, and external eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 295-315.
Allison, D. B., Kalinsky, L. B., & Gorman, B. S. (1992). A comparison of the psychometric properties of three measures of dietary restraint. Psychological Assessment, 4(3), 391-398.
Halvarsson, K., & Sjoden, P-O. (1998). Psychometric properties of the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire (DEBQ) among 9-10-year-old Swedish girls. European Eating Disorders Review, 6, 115-125.
van Strien, T., & Oosterveld, P. (2008). The children’s DEBQ for assessment of restrained, emotional and external eating in 7 to 12-year-old children. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 41(1), 72-81.
Wardle, J. (1987). Eating style: A validation study of the Dutch eating behaviour questionnaire in normal subjects and women with eating disorders. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31(2), 161-169.
• Used in a variety of populations
• Lengthy for use in prevalence surveys, although some investigators use selected subscales.